– Hello, Nikolay. – Hello. – You know, Nikolay, Im full of grief. It often happens that on various
Internet forums and in social media I have to communicate with people who actually argue that ancient Egyptians had zero skills. Though all of us read about them
in schoolbooks and watched some films. In other words, ancient Egyptians allegedly
didnt have any tools and technologies necessary to create all those things that are shown to tourists
in Egypt nowadays. Even guides in the Museum
of Egyptian Antiquities in Cairo say that they dont know how such impressive bores in granite
could be made. As far as I understand,
you do know how such bores can be made. And in your experiments you have proved that this can be done with tools which ancient Egyptians had at hand.
Such as, a simple copper tube. Am I right? – Yes, sure. – But how? With a copper tube? – With a copper tube. – But copper is softer than granite. – It is softer. But it does not drill granite. – And what does? – Abrasive mineral. – Like, ordinary sand? – Yes, quartz sand
which can be found
at a riverbank or other places. Beside sand, they also used corundite or emery rock for this purpose. They knew how to mine and use it.
Corundite was even identified
inside one of granite samples,
that is, in a bore. Also, today we know deposits
where Egyptians could mine it. – And is this tool made by you? – Yes. – Why is it shaped like that? Lets look at its structure I see this copper tube. – Yes, the copper tube
is the main component here. And the handle
is carved out of a sapling which Ive chopped
in the nearest grove. I had no time
to look for something better. It is curved, but it works. – And what is this? – It is a balance weight. So, if there is some obstacle
in the stone or something jams the balance weight helps
to grind this obstacle and it’s efficient. – What is it made of? – This time Ive cast it of plaster. But it is also can be made of stone. The simplest balance weights
which we can see in Egyptian frescoes
are made of several separate weights. These may be either stones
or sacks with sand, for instance. Egyptians simply secured
those weights with ropes. It also works well Ive tried this method and shared photos So, in general,
everything here is authentic. – Just like in ancient times. So yes, you said we can drill a bore in a piece of granite using this stuff? – For sure. – Well then, lets start our experiment. First, we have to secure
the piece of granite,
because it is pretty small. Its not a granite slab
which could be just laid down and drilled. Thats why we have to hold it in place
somehow to prevent its displacement This cobblestone is rather small,
and the first question people ask is how can we drill a bore
in an uneven surface?
What do we have to start with? But the method is as old as the hills. This plank will help us
to hold the drill bit, that is,
the tube in place
and prevent it from moving aside. Now we are going to secure it and press down.
After this we can drill without worrying
about of slipping or displacing our tool. Well, I think we can start now. – So, we wont use a laser? – A laser? Im not sure Its hard to guess,
where it can be mounted here. Now I put some plasticine under the plank to prevent abrasive from leaking out. Clay would be
a better choice in this case, but I had no time to look for it. Sometimes, we can see
that Egyptians gouged out a small pit in stone and then drilled in that point. And they didnt use plasticine
or something because the pit itself held the drill a bit and the sand. Here, lets make it like that Lets press it Remove excessive plasticine and fix the plank with F-clamps. – These are not ancient Egyptian F-clamps. – Well, if we had a larger stone,
I would have taken a longer plank, laid it onto the stone,
and called somebody with ancient Egyptian feet
to stand on it to press and secure it. The drill bit eats into
the first millimeters faster, so, fifteen minutes is enough
to make a groove out of which the drill bit wont jump.
– And we wont need the plank. – No, we wont. But still we will
leave it in its place, just because here we have a groove and abrasive
is not leaking out of it. So, this is just more convenient. Also, Ill make a plasticine bead,
a kind of a tray where we will be filling in with abrasive. – Everything is thought out. – If we had a larger stone, we would have piled sand into a cone shape
without any bead around it and poured water just right there. But here we shall make a bead
just like this and then fill it with water
just to make our task easier. Of course, we can pour water from above. But if we have a bucket lets use it. – We might do that. – Handymen. – Smartly done. – We need a laser. – It would be easier with a laser.
– Yes. Well, lets pour sand right here.
In fact, it is black carbolite with various admixtures. I think that natural corundite
would work better. Lets put it here and pour some water. – I hope the water is from the Nile? – Surely.
Its from my weekend house,
from a cask. There are even some gnatworms. So, everything is done right. – Indeed, the whole secret
is in gnatworms. – Right you are, they gnaw granite out. – Gnaw out, yeah. Now, lets proceed
to the most interesting part. – Show us your best stuff! – Lets start. – Lets position it into the place Done. Speed up now. – Alex, the water is leaking out
too fast. Lets stop. The water is leaking out. – Why? – I guess there is a leak
in plasticine under the plank. – Lets look at it.
– See?, Im pouring water and its leaking out. – Well, lets then open it
and have a look. – Lets see, what weve got. About forty minutes of drilling. They couldnt do that! Now I want to say a few words
about what we are doing all this for.
For what purpose we are blistering
our hands for two days and sweating over
some strange experiment. The thing is that in the recent years
quite a few people have become active in the internet who pull the wool over others eyes in blogs and in social media. They argue that historians
allegedly fool us, that history is all faked-up,
and that everything has not been in the way history books tell us. In particular, they argue
that the ancients were unskilled butterfingers,
nearly talking apes’ who couldnt make anything themselves. According to them, the truth is different,
and all great monuments in the Americas, in Egypt, in China,
and so on were created by aliens, Atlanteans, or some other
mysterious civilizations. Besides, people of this sort
are rather aggressive. They dont read, dont know, and dont want to know anything. With this background they naturally
sell fiction, not facts to their audience. They show some impressive pictures,
tell some wondrous stories But in my opinion all this
leads to destruction of the Russian education and science. So, when we, and me between others, first attempted to popularize science,
we found out that if something was written
in popular articles
or even mentioned in public lectures,
it anyway failed to convince people. That is, people need some action, some material evidence
to see with their own eyes. So, we decided to shoot
a series of videos of practical experiments
in order to show these ancient technologies in process and prove that ancient people
were capable of pulling off rather complicated technical tasks using such simple, even primitive tools, and there is enough well known archaeological evidence. I often get messages like this:
You are armchair scholars. In theory everything looks fine, but lets see
what you can make in practice. Here you are! We can make this,
and you see the results. One of the frequently asked questions is How it is possible to drill
overlapping bores? It seems impossible.
If one bore is already drilled, the other one supposedly will be displaced, because the drill bit will creep away. In practice, there is nothing difficult.
The method is known since Adam was a boy First, we put a template
onto the point here
a bore will be drilled. We drill a bore, then shift the template and drill another bore. And thats the secret. In such a way we can drill as many bores as we need. Then we can beat out drill cores and get a bigger cavity
of some complex shape. We have drilled through about 48 mm, that is, we are slightly ahead of schedule and are worn out. – Close to that. – So, ancient Egyptians needed rest. So, Nikolay, lets finish and see the result. So, what do we have here? Fifty millimeters. Forty nine point eight,
to be more specific. Good, but there should be
fifty millimeters exactly. Now, the most critical moment: we have to draw out the core
without damaging it. But its an easy task.
– With a small chisel. – Yes, we work with a chisel
in this way. – Wow! Just two knocks. – Just workmanship. – Great! We sat down to take a rest and discuss the fruit
of our righteous labor. Well, the fruit looks like that.
First, we can see here that it slightly broadens to the bottom. When discussing such granite cores
from ancient Egypt,
it is widely stated that they broaden or, alternatively,
narrow to the bottom
and that it is impossible
to get this shape using the method which
we have used a moment ago. It is stated than some high-tech tool
is needed for this purpose. – And why it is shaped like that? – Because the drill bit
is wobbling during drilling. And at the top it is wobbling heavier
because at the bottom it is thrusting… …against the material.
– Wobbling means traveling like that? – Yes, it is travelling and, thus,
grinding more granite at the top. Thats why the bore is V-shaped
in the cross-section. And this is our counter-argument to the frequent statement
that ancient Egyptians could not make things like that. In practice, there is nothing difficult. In this sample it is clearly seen that the bore matches
its bore hole perfectly. And it is clearly seen that the
bore is broader at the top than at the bottom. Well, I hope the question is resolved. But I anticipate one more question about sharpness of the cutting edge.
Here is this cutting edge. – Yes, it is argued that
if one tries to drill granite with a copper tube,
it will go blunt very soon. But here we see quite the opposite
can you show this? – Yes, the tube does not go blunt
but becomes sharper. – In other words, our drill bit is self-sharpening.
– Yes, it is a self-sharpening drill bit. Im not sure if it is visible here,
but the wall thickness has decreased. When we measured it before we started, it was one point eight millimeters. Lets measure it once more. One point six. – So, it turns out that the tube
has become sharper. – Yes, one point six millimeters. That is, two-tenths of a millimeter
have gone at this depth. If we drilled deeper and the balance weight were lighter, the tube would become even sharper,
almost as sharp as a knife blade. You can google pictures where a needle is stuck into
the cut left after tubular drilling. We also can stick a needle into our cut
and get almost the same picture. – A certain narrowing. – Yes, the same narrowing is here. It is a little bit thinner
than in our samples, but Here and the same is here.
Just the same narrowing to the bottom. – And here are those much spoken-about grooves. It is argued that grooves on ancient cores have a helical pitch of exactly two millimeters and that it means that the tool shall cut two millimeters with each revolution. – Well, first lets see
what do we have here two millimeters or not
Lets do it this way. If the grooves are more visible now? Put the ruler here and measure the pitch. – It varies. At one point I see less than two millimeters,
at other points it is only one millimeter. Actually, the pitch varies pretty much. – Naturally. In the same way varies it around Egypt.
In cross-section, bores
can be either widening or narrowing to the bottom. At first, I experimented with
a drill bit with a longitudinal split. That is, I took a copper sheet, wrapped it around a metal tube
and fixed with hose clamps. There was a longitudinal split here. The major advantage of this split was
that it let the abrasive inside. May be that was why the grooves were more regular at that time. In other words,
if a drill bit has a split,
then it will unbend itself
during drilling because of its own wobbling
which is clearly seen in the video. The tube unbends itself gradually, and the bore becomes
well-shaped in cross-section. So, if we drill with a split tube, then the bore will broaden to the bottom. But if we drill with
an unsplit tube like this one… – Then vice-versa.
– Yes, the bore will narrow to the bottom. Because the tube will not unbend itself. One can measure the bore from inside
and see that it really narrows. – Thats all, I guess.